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Chemical Plant

Chemical Plant


DESCRIPTION:

Price: On Request

  • Model: R-CP
Tags :

Chemical Plant, Acetaldehyde Chemical Plant, Acetic Acid from Acetaldehyde Chemical Plant, Acetic Anhydride Chemical Plant, Ethyle Acetate Chemical Plant

  • ACETALDEHYDE
  • ACETIC ACID FROM ACETALDEHYDE
  • ACETIC ANHYDRIDE
  • ACID RECOVERY
  • ETHYL ACETATE

Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol) is converted to acetaldehyde by vapor phase reaction. The reaction is a combination of oxidation & dehydrogenation. Ethyl Alcohol vapors mixed with air are passed over silver catalyst maintained at 450o - 500o C. The reaction products are condensed. Uncondensed gases are sent to two scrubbers in series to recover aldehyde and alcohol. The condensate and the absorb-ate thus obtained is sent to a distillation column to obtain pure aldehyde product from the top. The bottom consisting of alcohol - water mixture is passed through reactor tubes in order to recover the heat of reaction. The vapors formed are sent to the aldehyde distillation column and the over flow liquid is sent to another distillation column to recover unconverted alcohol which is turn is recycled through Carburetor. The process is operated at elevated pressure so as to increase the boiling point of acetaldehyde and thereby the necessity of using chilled water for aldehyde condensers is eliminated. The product Acetaldehyde is stored under inert gas N2 blanket.

Acetaldehyde is converted to acetic acid by liquid phase catalytic oxidation at a relatively low temperature around 55oC and at a pressure of 4.0 kg’s /cm2g. The reaction can be represented by the following equation. The oxygen for the reaction is supplied by atmospheric air. The heat of reaction is removed by cooling water. The vent gases mainly consisting of Nitrogen are first scrubbed with crude acid and then washed with water to remove any traces of acid carried by vent gases. The over flow from the reactor is sent to a stripping column where unconverted acetaldehyde is recovered. The stripped crude acid along with liquid from wash column is sent to a distillation column to get pure acetic acid from the bottom.

Acetic acid is evaporated and after adding catalyst is passed through a series of coils placed in a furnace. The Pyrolysis of acetic acid takes place in the coils placed in the furnace and products of phrolysis are ketene and water. The reaction can be represented by The exit gases from the furnace i.e. ketene, water, unconverted acid etc. are immediately cooled in a series of coolers to condense water and unconverted acid. The condensate from these coolers is sent to acid recovery section to recover acetic acid. The ketene gas is scrubbed with acetic acid in a series of scrubber towers to produce acetic anhydride. The reaction can be represented by the following equation: The over flow from the scrubbers i.e. Crude acetic anhydride subjected to fractional distillation to obtain pure acetic anhydride. The whole process is carried under reduced pressure.

The dilute acetic acid can not be purified by conventional distillation methods. Hence, extractive distillation is employed to distill dilute acetic acid. Dilute acetic acid is fed from top to the extraction column and the solvent ethyl acetate is fed to the column from bottom. Solvent acid coming from top of the column is sent to a distillation column where pure acetic acid is obtained as a bottom product. The top product of the column after condensation is sent to a decanter. Top over flow from the decanter is partly sent to the column as reflux and partly to the extraction column through an intermediate tank. The reffinate i.e. bottom product of the extraction column and the bottom over floe of decanter- I are mixed and sent to a recovery column to recover the solvent i.e. ethyl acetate. The top product of the recovery column is sent to a decanter - II after condensation. The top over flow from the decanter is partly given as reflux and partly withdrawn as recovered solvent which is turn is sent to extraction column through intermediate tank. The bottom of the recovery column is sent to drain along with the bottom of the decanter - II.

Ethyl acetate is a product of esterification reaction between ethyl alcohol and acetic acid. The reaction can be represented by

Acetic acid and ethyl alcohol are sent in a fixed proportion through a preheater to a kettle reboiler. Small amount of catalyst is added into the kettle. The reaction products are carried to the top of the column as an azeotrope, condensed and pass to a decanter. The top over flow from the decanter is partly given as reflux. The remaining part of the top over flow along with bottom of the decanter is sent to a mixer. The mixer also receives top product of the recovery column and also partly the top product of E.A.Column. The contents of the mixer after through stirring are sent to a settler. Top over flow from the settler is sent to E.A.Column. The product E.A. is drawn from the bottom. The top product of the E.A. Column is sent partly to mixer as stated above. Bottom flow of the settler is sent to recovery column whose bottoms are sent to drain. The top product after meeting reflux requirements is sent to mixer.

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